Digital workflow in Maxillofacial Prosthodontics : An Insight

  • Isheta Sarkar Lecture, Seema Dental College and Hospital, Rishikesh
Keywords: KEY WORDS: Digital dentistry, Maxillofacial Prosthodontics, CAD/CAM, Digital impression, Rapid prototyping


Title: “Digital Workflow in Maxillofacial Prosthodontics: An Insight”



From its inception to now dentistry has made its way covering great milestones in terms of invention and precision to provide us with better working conditions and increased comfort for both clinicians and patients. To add up, is the remarkable innovation: CAD-CAM technology, which allow the dentists to provide a better and quality care to their patients. While restoring a facial defect the prosthesis should ideally be customized to put back the anatomy as accurately as possible. This process is difficult and time consuming & demands a high level of artistic skill to form a mirror image & achieve a good aesthetic match. The present time evolution of CAD/CAM is focused on methodical and swift integration and automation of the elements of design and manufacturing along with the development of new algorithms. This article reviews the development and availability of various digital technologies for the designing and manufacturing of different maxillofacial prostheses.


1. Bai SZ, Feng ZH, Gao R, Dong Y, Bi YP, Wu GF, Chen X. Development and application of a rapid rehabilitation system for reconstruction of maxillofacial soft-tissue defects related to war and traumatic injuries. Military Medical Research. 2014 Dec;1(1):1-7.
2. CAD/CAM: Principles, practice and manufacturing management. 2nd edition: Part-I.
3. Elbashti ME, Sumita YI, Kelimu S, Aswehlee AM, Awuti S, Hattori M, Taniguchi H. Application of digital technologies in maxillofacial prosthetics literature: a 10-year observation of five selected prosthodontics journals. Int J Prosthodont. 2019 Jan 1;32(1):45-50.
4. Bhambhani R, Bhattacharya J, Sen SK. Digitization and its futuristic approach in prosthodontics. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society. 2013 Sep;13(3):165-74.
5. Khindria S K, Bansal S, Kansal M. Maxillofacial prosthetic materials. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2009;9:2-5.
6. Verdonck HW, Poukens J, Overveld HV, Riediger D. Computer-assisted maxillofacialprosthodontics: a new treatment protocol. Int J Prosthodont 2003, 16:326-8.
7. Jiao T, Zhang F, Huang X, Wang C. Design and fabrication of auricular prostheses by CAD/CAM system. Int J Prosthodont 2004, 17: 460-3.
8. Reitemeier B, Notni G, Heinze M, Schone C, Schmidt A, Fichtner D. Opticalmodeling of extraoral defects. J Prosthet Dent 2004, 91: 80-4.
9. Wg Cdr Naveen K S, Lt Col Poonam Prakash, Brig S K Bhandari, 4Lt Col Vijaya Kumar R. Current Principles Of Advanced Digital Technologies In The Fabrication Of Maxillofacial Prosthesis. Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research. 2019 June.
10. Subburaj K, Nair C, Rajesh S, Meshram SM, Ravi B. Rapid development of auricular prosthesis using CAD and rapidprototypingtechnologies. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007, 36: 938-43.
11. Abdullah, A.M.; Mohamad, D.; Din, T.N.D.T.; Yahya, S.; Akil, H.M.; Rajion, Z.A. Fabrication of nasal prosthesis utilising an affordable 3D printer. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 2019, 100, 1907–1912.
12. Sanghavi, R.; Shingote, S.; Abhang, T.; Thorat, P.; Vathare, A. An innovative technique for fabricating a mirror image wax pattern using three-dimensional printing technology for an auricular prosthesis. SRM J. Res. Dent. Sci. 2018, 9, 91–95.
13. Cristache CM, Tudor I, Moraru L, Cristache G, Lanza A, Burlibasa M. Digital Workflow in Maxillofacial Prosthodontics—An Update on Defect Data Acquisition, Editing and Design Using Open-Source and Commercial Available Software. Applied Sciences. 2021 Jan;11(3):973.
14. Verdonck HW, Poukens J, Overveld HV, Riediger D. Computer-assisted maxillofacial prosthodontics: a new treatment protocol. International Journal of prosthodontics. 2003 May 1;16(3).
15. Priyanka G, Sujesh M, Kumar R, Rao C, Srujana Z. Digital impressions in prosthodontics–past, present and future trends. IP Annals of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry. 2020 Jun 15;6(2):66-70.
16. Baheti MJ, Soni UN, Gharat NV, Mahagaonkar P, Khokhani R, Dash S, et al. Intra-oral Scanners: A New Eye in Dentistry. Austin J Orthopade Rheumatol. 2015;2(3):1021.
17. Grant GT, Aita-Holmes C, Liacouras P, Garnes J, Wilson Jr WO. Digital capture, design, and manufacturing of a facial prosthesis: Clinical report on a pediatric patient. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry. 2015 Jul 1;114(1):138-41.
18. Mallepree, T.; Bergers, D. Accuracy of medical RP models. Rapid Prototyp. J. 2009, 15, 325–332.
19. Lahoti KS, Kharwade SV, Gade JR. Rapid Prototyping: A Modernistic Era in Prosthodontics.
20. Daule VM. Rapid prototyping and its application in dentistry. Journal of Dental & Allied Sciences. 2013; 2(2):57-61.6
21. Chua CK, Leong KF, Lim CS. Rapid prototyping: principles and applications (with companion CD-ROM). World Scientific Publishing Company; 2010 Jan 14
22. Joshi MD, Dange SP, Khalikar AN. Rapid prototyping technology in maxillofacial prosthodontics: Basics and applications. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society. 2006 Oct 1;6(4):175.
23. Torabi K, Farjood E, Hamedani S. Rapid prototyping technologies and their applications in prosthodontics, a review of literature. Journal of Dentistry. 2015 Mar; 16(1):1.
24. Bhatnagar P, Kaur J, Arora P, Arora V. ʺRapid Prototyping in Dentistry–An Updateʺ. International Journal of Life Sciences. 2014; 3 (2):50-3.
25. Gali S, Sirsi S. 3D Printing: the future technology in prosthodontics. Journal of Dental and Orofacial Research. 2015; 11 (1):37-40.
26. Chan DC, Frazier KB, Tse LA, Rosen DW. Application of rapid prototyping to operative dentistry curriculum. Journal of dental education. 2004 Jan 1; 68 (1):64-70.
27. Raja'a Albuha M, Farid F, Alkhafagy MT, Shafiei F. Prosthodontic using Rapid Prototyping. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS). 2016; 26 (1):271-85
How to Cite
Isheta Sarkar. (2024). Digital workflow in Maxillofacial Prosthodontics : An Insight. UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES, 10(1).