Periodontal Microbiology: The Emergence

  • Diya Pandey Sudha rustagi college of dental sciences and research
  • Sharon Lazarus Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Faridabad, Haryana
  • Shweta Sardhana
  • C.S. Baiju
Keywords: Oral Microbiome, Landmark Studies, Novel bacteria, Treatment Advances


There has been an undeniable relationship between microorganisms and the human body, both in terms of health and disease. One such genre is periodontal microbiology and diseases. The aetiology of a disease refers to the causal trigger(s), whereas pathogenesis refers to the mechanism(s) through which the illness advances. Periodontitis has a microbiological aetiology and an inflammatory pathophysiology, although the coordination of the contributing variables for the disease's onset and course may differ from an epidemiological standpoint (1). There has been extensive research on this disease and most of them pointed out the relationship between an unbalanced oral flora and the disease itself. Many newer technologies have helped elaborate the microbiome, from identifying native and novel bacteria to theories explaining how disturbance of oral phylogeny can lead to precipitation of this disease and paradigms based on which different treatments have been formulated. This review of pertinent literature online and offline was conducted, and data and information were then extracted, modified, and arranged under the appropriate headings. The monograph tries to compile the primitive concepts, the eventual shift of paradigms, the latest advances in treatment modalities and futuristic expectations. From a simpler PCR to new generation sequencing, this manuscript covers it all.


1. Lopez R, Hujoel P, Belibasakis GN. On putative periodontal pathogens: an epidemiological perspective. Virulence. 2015;6(3):249-257.
2. Loe H. Periodontal diseases: a brief historical perspective. Periodontology 2000. 1993;2:7-12.
3. K Chandrasekharan Nair et al. Acharya Sushruta - The Patron Saint of Dentistry;Acta Scientific Dental Sciences (ISSN: 2581-4893) Volume 6 Issue 8 August 2022
4. Ring MEWDM. The pioneer who laid the foundation for modern dental research. N Y State Dent J. 2002;68(2):34-37
5. Belibasakis GN, Belstrøm D, Eick S,Gursoy UK, Johansson A, Könönen E. Periodontal microbiology and microbial etiology of periodontal diseases: Historical concepts and contemporary perspectives.Periodontol 2000. 2023;00:1
6. A. Gerloni et al.Dental status of three Egyptian mummies: radiological investigation by multislice computerized tomography;Volume 107, Issue 6, June 2009, Pages e58-e64
7. Theilade, Else, et al. "Experimental gingivitis in man: II. A longitudinal clinical and bacteriological investigation." Journal of periodontal research 1.1 (1966): 1-13.
8. Marsh PD. Microbial ecology of dental plaque and its significance in health and disease. Adv Dent Res. 1994;8(2):263-271.
9. Vartoukian SR, Adamowska A, Lawlor M, Moazzez R, Dewhirst FE, Wade WG. In vitro cultivation of 'unculturable' oral bacteria,facilitated by community culture and media supplementation with siderophores. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146926.
10. Schlafer S, Riep B, Griffen AL, et al. Filifactor alocis –involvementin periodontal biofilms. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:66.
11. Klinger R. Untersuchungen über menschliche Aktinomykose. Zentralbl Bakteriol. 1912;62:191–200.
12. Sufaru, Irina-Georgeta, Maria-Alexandra Martu, and Sorina Mihaela Solomon. "Advances in periodontal pathogens." Microorganisms 10.7 (2022): 1439.
13. Avula H, Chakravarthy Y.Models of periodontal disease pathogenesis: A journey through time. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2022;26:204-12.
14. Arora N, Mishra A, Chugh S. Microbial role in periodontitis: Have we reached the top? Some unsung bacteria other than red complex. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18:9-13.
15. Mashburn-Warren L, Stafford GP, Cieplik F. The dental plaque biofilm matrix. Periodontol 2000. 2021;86:32–56. https://doi. org/10.1111/prd.12361
16. Tribble GD, Rigney TW, Dao D-H, et al. Natural competence is a major mechanism for horizontal DNA transfer in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. MBio. 2012;3:e00231-11.
17. Paez-Espino D, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, Pavlopoulos GA, et al. Uncovering Earth's virome. Nature. 2016;536(7617):425-430.
18. 5Kutter E, De Vos D, Gvasalia G, et al. Phage therapy in clinical practice: treatment of human infections. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2010;11(1):69-86. 5.. Dabrowska K, Abedon ST. Pharmacologically aware phage therapy: pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic obstacles to phage antibacterial action in animal and human bodies. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2019;83(4):e00012-19
19. Subgingival fungi, Archaea, and viruses under the omics loupe Patricia I. Diaz Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY
20. Jakubovics NS, Yassin SA, Rickard AH. Community interactions of oral streptococci. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2014;87:43-110.
21. Tribble GD, Rigney TW, Dao D-H, et al. Natural competence is a major mechanism for horizontal DNA transfer in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. MBio. 2012;3:e00231-11.
22. Brockson ME, Novotny LA, Mokrzan EM, et al. Evaluation of the kinetics and mechanism of action of anti-integration host factor-mediated disruption of bacterial biofilms. Mol Microbiol. 2014;93:1246-1258.
23. Teles, Ricardo, et al. "Lessons learned and unlearned in periodontal microbiology." Periodontology 2000 62.1 (2013): 95-162.
24. Jakubovics NS, Goodman SD, Mashburn-Warren L, Stafford GP, Cieplik F. The dental plaque biofilm matrix. Periodontol 2000. 2021;86:32–56. https://doi. org/10.1111/prd.12361.
25. Hong B-Y, Hoare A, Cardenas A, et al. The salivary mycobiome contains 2 ecologically distinct mycotypes. J Dent Res. 2020;99:730-738.
26. Bostanci, Nagihan, et al. "Metaproteome and metabolome of oral microbial communities." Periodontology 2000 85.1 (2021): 46-81.
27. Kaan AM, Kahharova D, Zaura E. Acquisition and establishment of the oral microbiota. Periodontol 2000. 2021;86:123–141.
28. Hoare A, Marsh PD, Diaz PI. 2017. Ecological therapeutic opportunities for oral diseases. Microbiol Spectrum 5(4):BAD-0006-2016.
29. Staab B, Eick S, Knöfler G, Jentsch H. 2009. The influence of a probiotic milk drink on the development of gingivitis: a pilot study. J ClinPeriodontol 36:850–856.
30. Kaan, A. M., Dono Kahharova, and Egija Zaura. "Acquisition and establishment of the oral microbiota." Periodontology 2000 86.1 (2021): 123-141.
31. Li, Xinyi, et al. "The oral microbiota: community composition, influencing factors, pathogenesis, and interventions." Frontiers in Microbiology 13 (2022): 895537.
32. Kumar, Purnima S., Shareef M. Dabdoub, and Sukirth M. Ganesan. "Probing periodontal microbial dark matter using metataxonomics and metagenomics." Periodontology 2000 85.1 (2021): 12-27.
33. Abualqomsaan et al., 2010; Ghabanchi et al., 2010; Rashidi Maybodi et al., 2016; Yazar et al., 2016; Fadhil Ali Malaa et al., 2022.
34. Sikdar, Rakesh, and Mikael Elias. "Quorum quenching enzymes and their effects on virulence, biofilm, and microbiomes: a review of recent advances." Expert review of anti-infective therapy 18.12 (2020): 1221-1233.
35. Xiao, Xuan, et al. "Advances in the oral microbiota and rapid detection of oral infectious diseases." Frontiers in Microbiology 14 (2023): 1121737.
36. Mineoka, Tetsuro, et al. "Site‐specific development of periodontal disease is associated with increased levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque." Journal of periodontology 79.4 (2008): 670-676.
37. Jiao Y, Hasegawa M, Inohara N. The Role of Oral Pathobionts in Dysbiosis during Periodontitis Development. J Dent Res. 2014 Jun;93(6):539-46. doi: 10.1177/0022034514528212. Epub 2014 Mar 19. PMID: 24646638; PMCID: PMC4023464.
How to Cite
Pandey, D., Sharon Lazarus, Shweta Sardhana, & C.S. Baiju. (2024). Periodontal Microbiology: The Emergence. UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF DENTAL SCIENCES, 10(1).
Periodontology / Oral Implant